Aa  Bb  Cc  Dd  Ee  Ff  Gg  Hh  Ii  Jj  Kk  Ll  Mm

Nn  Oo  Pp  Qq  Rr  Ss  Tt  Uu  Vv  Ww  Xx  Yy  Zz

Additional resources



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Arditi, A. & Cho, J. (2007). Letter case and text legibility in normal and low vision. Vision Research, 47(19), 2499–2505.

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American Psychological Association, (2001). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (fifth edition). American Psychological Association. Washington, DC, United States.

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Bayer, M. Sommer, S. and Schacht, A. (2012). Font size matters—Emotion and attention in cortical responses to written words. PLoS ONE, 7(5): e36042. 1–6. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0036042

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Bernard, M., Liao, C. H. & Mills, M., (2001). The effects of font type and size on the legibility and reading time of online text by older adults. Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. New York, USA. doi>10.1145/634067.634173

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Beier, S. & Larson, K. (2010). Design improvements for frequently misrecognized letters. Information Design Journal, 18(2), 118–137

Bickel, W. K., Yi, R.,  Landes, R. D., Hill, P. F. & Baxter, C. (2011) Remember the Future: Working Memory Training Decreases Delay Discounting Among Stimulant Addicts. Biological Psychiatry, 69(3), 260. DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2010.08.017

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Dean, C. T. & Klein, R. M. (2011). In search of the Font Effect: The effect of conflict upon reading and naming typefaces serially. Design Principles and Practices: An International Journal, 4(6), 401–420.

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Dyson, M. C. & Haselgrove, M. (2001). The influence of reading speed and line length on the effectiveness of reading from screen. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 54, 585–612.

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Dyson, M. C. (2004). How physical text layout affects reading from screen. Behaviour & Information Technology, 23(6), 377–393



Ehses, H. (1976). Design Papers 1. Semiotic Foundation of Typography. NSCAD University. Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.

Ehses, H. & Lupton, E. (1988). Design papers 5. Rhetorical handbook: an illustrated manual for graphic designers. NSCAD University. Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.

Ehses, H. (2008). Design papers 6: Design on a rhetorical footing. NSCAD University, Canada.

Evans, T. L., (1988). Interior signage legibility for people over age 65: A comparison study of four typefaces (Research report for the Society for Environmental Graphic Design Foundation).



Felici, J. (2003). The complete manual of typography. Peachpit Press, California, United States.

Fiset et al. (2008). Features for identification of uppercase and lowercase letters. Psycholigal Science. 19(11), 1161–1168.

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Frase, L. T. & Schwartz, B. J. (1979). Typographical cues that facilitate comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology,  71(2), 197-206. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.71.2.197

Friedl, F. (1998). The Univers by Adrian Frutiger. Verlag form. Frankfurt, Germany.

Fulton, J. (1993). User trials for information graphics: replacing designers’ assumptions with feedback from users. Information Design Journal, 7(2), 99–104.



Gluth, S. (1999). A study in visual factor effecting legibility. Visible Language, 33(3), 236-253.

Grainger, J., Dufau, S., Montant, M., Ziegler, J. C. & Fagot, J. (2012). Orthographic Processing in Baboons (Papio papio). Science, (336)6078, 245–248. DOI: 10.1126/science.1218152



Hailstone M., & Foster J. J. (1967). Studies of the efficiency of drug labeling. The Journal of Typographic Research, 1(3), 275–284.

Hartley, J. (1994). Designing instructional text. Kogan Page, London, England.

Hartley, J. (2004) Applying psychology to text design: A personal view. Information Design Journal + Document Design. 12(2), 191–102.

Heller, S. & Meggs, P. B. (2001). Text’s on type: critical writings on typography. Allworth Press. New York.

Hernandez, I. & Preston, J. L., (2013). Disfluency disrupts the confirmation bias. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 49(1), pp 178. DOI: 10.1016/j.jesp.2012.08.010

Hillier, R. (2008). Sylexiad. A typeface for the adult dyslexic reader. Journal of Writing in Creative Practice, 1(3), pp. 275-291.

Hochuli, J. (2008). Detail in typography. Hyphen Press, London.

Hume, D. (1742). Essay’s, Moral and Political. Printed by R. Fleming and A. Alison, for A. Kincaid. Oxford, England.

Huntley, H. E. (1970). The divine proportion: a study in mathematical beauty. Dover Publications Incorporated. Ontario, Canada.



Kelly, S & Gregory, t. (2011). Typography in human-computer interaction: Cognitive and aesthetic implications of typeface selection and presentation.

King, E. (2005). Robert Brownjohn: Sex and typography. Princeton Architectural Press. New York.

Kinross, R. (2005). Modern typography. 2nd ed. Hyphen Press, London.

Klein, R. & McMullen, P. (1999). Converging Methods for Understanding Reading and Dyslexia. Cambridge. MIT Press.

Klein, R. (2009). On the control of attention. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 63(3), 240–252..



LaBerge, D. & Brown, V. (1986). Variations in size of the visual field in which targets are presented: An attentional range effect. Perception & Psychophysics, 40(3), 188-200.

Lidwell, W., Holden, K. & Butler, J. (2003). Universal principles of graphic design: 100 ways to enhance usability, influence perception, increase appeal, make better design discourse and teach through design. Rockport Publishers Incorporated, Beverley, MA, USA.

Lupton, E. (2010). Thinking with type: A critical guide for designers, writers, editors and students. Second and revised expanded edition. New York, USA: Princeton Architectural Press.



MacLeod, C. M. (1991). Half a century of research on the Stroop effect: An integrative review. Psychological Bulletin. 109(2) 163 – 202.

Majaj, J., Pelli, D., Kurshan, P. and Palomares, M. (2002). The role of spatial frequency channels in letter identification. Vision Research, 42(9), 1165–1184. doi: 10.1016/S0042-6989(02)00045-7

Manwell, L., Roberts, M., & Besner, D. (2004). Single letter coloring and spatial cueing eliminates a semantic contribution to the Stroop Effect. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review (in?press).

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Mijksenaar, P. (1997). Visual Function. An introduction to information design. Princeton Architectural Press. New York, USA.

Morris, R. A., Aquilante, K., Charles Bigelow, C. & Yager, D. (2002). Serifs slow RSVP reading at very small sizes, but don’t matter at larger sizes. Society for Information Display International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers, p13. (.doc, 149k)

Müller-Brockmann, J. (1981). Grid systems in graphic design. Arthur Niggli Limited, Switzerland.



Noordzij, G. (2005). The stroke: Theory of writing of the pen. Hyphen Press, London.



Paterson, D. G. & Tinker, M. A. (1929). Studies of typographical factors influencing speed of reading. II. Size of type. Journal of Applied Psychology, 13(2). 120-130. doi: 10.1037/h0074167

Patterson, D. G. & Tinker, M. A. (1932a). Studies of typographical factors influencing speed of reading: X. Style of type face. Journal of Applied Psychology, 16(6), 605–613.

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Reimer, B., Mehler, B. Joseph F. & Coughlin, J. (2012). An evaluation of typeface design in a text-rich automotive user interface. Massachusetts Institute of Technology AgeLab & New England University Transportation Center.

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Sanocki, T. & Dyson, M. (2011). Letter processing and font information during reading: Beyond distinctiveness, where vision meets design. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 1(73). Retrieved from DOI: 10.3758/s13414-011-0220-9.

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Typophile’s book wiki



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Additional resources

The British Dyslexia Association’s dyslexia research information page